584-018-0165 Deaf and Hard of Hearing Endorsement: Competency Standards (new rule)

 

 

Summary of Proposed Action: Creates standards for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Endorsement.

 

Background: Commission staff has been working with a group of professional education faculty to develop the recommendation for proposed changes for Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) endorsement standards. The current standards for the endorsement are located in Division 038, 584-038-0300 Basic Hearing Impaired. Thus, except for a name change to the endorsement, the standards have not been reviewed since 1989. Changes to these rules were requested by professional education faculty considering reviving preparation for this endorsement.

 

By referring these standards to public comment and later adoption, higher education programs interested in preparing candidates for Deaf and Hard of Hearing endorsement on a license may present program proposals to the Commission for approval.

 

Currently, Oregon does not have an active Deaf and Hard of Hearing program in the state.

 

 

Fiscal Impact: N/A

 

Copy of Proposed Rule

 

584-018-0165 Deaf and Hard of Hearing Endorsement: Competency Standards (new rule)

 

(1) Candidates who are prepared for the Special Education: Deaf and Hard of Hearing endorsement will demonstrate the knowledge, skills, professional dispositions and cultural competencies necessary to promote the academic, career, and personal and social development of students in the deaf and hard of hearing population.

(2) The Commission may provide approval to an educator preparation program or course of study that prepares candidates for a Special Education: Deaf and Hard of Hearing endorsement only if it includes:

(a) Content that will enable candidates to gain the knowledge, skills, abilities, professional dispositions, and cultural competencies to meet the standards set forth in this rule; and

(b) Field experiences that include supervised teaching or internships in classrooms with deaf and hard of hearing learners and

(c) Integration of principles of cultural competency and equitable practice in each competency standard through the entire Deaf and Hard of Hearing Endorsement program.

 

(3)  Standard 1: Foundations To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to understand the philosophical, historical, and legal foundations of special education for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing and be able to incorporate this knowledge within the context of the educational system.  Standard 1 (Foundations) includes:

(a) Knowledge (Foundations) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand: 

(A)  Current educational definitions of students with hearing loss, including identification criteria, labeling issues, and current incidence and prevalence figures;

(B)   Models, theories, and philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total communication, oral/aural) that provide the basis for educational practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing, as consistent with program philosophy; 

(C)   Variations in beliefs, traditions, and values across cultures and within society, and the effect of the relationships among children who are deaf or hard of hearing, their families, and schooling; 

(D)   Issues in definitions and identification procedures for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., cultural versus medical perspective); 

(E)   Rights and responsibilities of parents, students, teachers, and schools as they relate to students who are deaf or hard of hearing; and 

(F)    The impact of various educational placement options (from the perspective of the needs of any given child who is deaf or hard of hearing and consistent with program philosophy) with regard to cultural identity and linguistic, academic, and social-emotional development.

 

(b) Skills and Abilities (Foundations) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can: 

(A)  Apply understanding of theory, philosophy, and models of practice to the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(B)  Articulate pros and cons of current issues and trends in special education and the field of education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(C) Identify the major contributors to the growth and improvement of knowledge and practice in the field of education of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(4) Standard 2: Characteristics of Learners To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to understand the impact that disabilities have on the cognitive, physical, emotional, social, and communication development of an individual and to create opportunities that support the communication, intellectual, social, and personal development of all students. Standard 2 (Characteristics of Learners) includes:

 

(a)    Knowledge (Characteristics of Learners) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand:

 

(A)   Communication features (visual, spatial, tactile, and/or auditory) salient to the learner who is deaf or hard of hearing that are necessary to enhance cognitive, emotional, and social development;

(B)    Research in cognition related to children who are deaf or hard of hearing; 

(C)    Cultural dimensions that being deaf or hard of hearing may add to the life of a child; 

(D)    Various etiologies of hearing loss that can result in additional sensory, motor, and/or learning differences in students who are deaf or hard of hearing; 

(E)    The effects of families and/or primary caregivers on the overall development of children who are deaf or hard of hearing; 

(F)     The effects that onset of loss, age of identification, and provision of services have on the development of the child who is deaf or hard of hearing; 

(G)    The impact of early comprehensible communication on the academic, linguistic, and social/emotional development of the child who is deaf or hard of hearing; 

(H)    That deafness or hearing loss alone does not necessarily preclude normal academic development, cognitive development, or communication ability; 

(I)      Differences in quality and quantity of incidental language/learning experiences that children who are deaf or hard of hearing may experience; 

(J)      The effects of sensory input on the development of language and cognition of children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and 

(K)     The structure and function of the ear and auditory systems, audiological assessments, and auditory interventions, including but not limited to hearing aids, cochlear implants, assistive technology, and auditory training.

 

(b) Skills and Abilities (Characteristics of Learners) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can develop a descriptive profile of a student who is deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(5) Standard 3: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Evaluation To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to understand the educational assessment process and to utilize various assessment strategies to support the continuous development of all students. Standard 3 (Assessment, Diagnosis and Evaluation) includes:

 

(a) Knowledge (Assessment, Diagnosis and Evaluation) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand: 

(A)  Specialized terminology used in assessment of children who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(B)   The components of an adequate evaluation for eligibility, placement, and program planning (e.g., interpreters, special tests) decisions for students who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(C)    The legal provisions, regulations, and guidelines regarding unbiased diagnostic assessment and use of instructional assessment measures with students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(b)   Skills and Abilities (Assessment, Diagnosis and Evaluation) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can:

(A) Administer appropriate assessment tools using the natural/native/preferred language of the student who is deaf or hard of hearing;

(B) Gather and analyze communication samples from students who are deaf or hard of hearing, including nonverbal as well as linguistic acts; and

(C) Use exceptionality-specific assessment instruments appropriate for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(6) Standard 4: Instructional Content and Practice To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to understand how students differ in their approaches to learning and to create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners.  The candidate understands instructional planning and designs instruction based on knowledge of the discipline, students, community, and curriculum goals. Standard 4 (Instructional Content and Practice) includes:

 

(a) Knowledge (Instructional Content and Practice) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand:

(A)  Sources of specialized materials for students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(B)  Components of the nonlinguistic and linguistic communication that students who are deaf or hard of hearing use;

(C)   The procedures and technologies required to educate students who are deaf or hard of hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies;

(D)   Information related to American Sign Language (ASL) and existing communication modes or philosophies (consistent with program philosophy);

(E)    Current theories of how language (e.g., ASL and English) develop in both children who are hearing and those who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(F)    Subject matter and practice used in general education across content areas;

(G)   Ways to facilitate cognitive and communicative development in students who are deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., visual saliency) consistent with program philosophy;

(H)   Techniques of stimulation and use of residual hearing, based upon interpretation of audiological evaluation, in students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(I)  Research-supported instructional strategies and practices for teaching students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(J)  Techniques/methods to develop speech skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(K)  Techniques/methods to address the unique needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing and have additional needs (e.g., behavioral concerns, autism) or disabilities (e.g., cognitive delay, autism).

 

(b)  Skills and Abilities (Instructional Content and Practice) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can:

(A)  Demonstrate proficiency in the languages used for instructing students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(B)  Demonstrate the basic characteristics of various existing communication modes used with students who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(C)   Select, design, produce, and utilize media, materials, and resources required to educate students who are deaf or hard of hearing under one or more of the existing modes or philosophies (e.g., bilingual-bicultural, total communication, aural/oral);

(D)   Infuse speech skills into academic areas as consistent with the mode or philosophy espoused and the ability of the student who is deaf or hard of hearing;

 

(E)  Modify the instructional process and classroom environment to meet the physical, cognitive, cultural, and communication needs of the child who is deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., teacher's style, acoustic environment, and availability of support services and appropriate technologies);

(F)   Facilitate independent communication behavior in children who are deaf or hard of hearing;

(G)   Apply first and second language teaching strategies (i.e., English through ASL or ESL) appropriate to the needs of the individual student who is deaf or hard of hearing and consistent with program philosophy;

(H)   Demonstrate the ability to modify incidental language experiences to fit the visual and other sensory needs of children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(I)   Design and implement appropriate strategies and activities to maximize literacy skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(7) Standard 5: Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Environment To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to employ their understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation. Standard 5 (Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Environment) includes:

(a) Knowledge (Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Environment) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand: 

(A)  Deaf cultural factors that may influence classroom management of students who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(B)  Model programs, including career-vocational and transition that have been effective for students with hearing losses.

(b)  Skills and Abilities (Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Environment) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can:

(A)  Manage assistive/augmentative devices appropriate for students who are deaf or hard of hearing in learning environments;

(B)  Select, adapt, and implement classroom management strategies for students who are deaf or hard of hearing that reflect understanding of each child's cultural needs, including a primarily visual deaf culture where appropriate;

(C)  Design a classroom environment that maximizes opportunities for visually oriented and/or auditory learning in students who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(D)  Plan and implement instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing and who have multiple disabilities and special needs.

 

(8) Standard 6: Managing Student Social Interaction Skills To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills to understand processes and opportunities for interaction and prepares students to interact in a variety of communication situations. Standard 6 (Managing Student Social Interaction Skills) includes:

(a)  Knowledge (Managing Student Social Interaction Skills) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand:

 

(A)   Processes for establishing ongoing interactions of students who are deaf or hard of hearing with peers and role models who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(B)   Opportunities for interaction with communities of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing on the local, State, and national levels.

(b)   Skills and Abilities (Managing Student Social Interaction Skills) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can teach students to use interpreters appropriately in social situations.

(9)  Standard 7: Communication and Collaborative Partnerships To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to use knowledge of effective written, verbal, nonverbal, and visual communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction among professionals, parents, paraprofessionals, and students. Standard 7 (Communication and Collaborative Partnerships) includes:

(a) Knowledge (Communication and Collaborative Partnerships) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand:

(A) Available resources to help parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing deal with their concerns regarding educational options and communication modes/philosophies for their children;

(B) The roles and responsibilities of teachers and support personnel in educational practice for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (e.g., educational interpreters, tutors, and note-takers);

(C) The effects of communication on the development of family relationships and strategies used to facilitate communication in families with children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(D) Services provided by governmental and non-governmental agencies or individuals in the ongoing management of children who are deaf or hard of hearing.

(b)   Skills and Abilities (Communication and Collaborative Partnerships) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can:

(A)  Teach students who are deaf or hard of hearing to use support personnel effectively (e.g., educational interpreters, tutors, and note-takers);

(B)   Facilitate communication between the child who is deaf or hard of hearing and his or her family and/or other caregivers; and

(C)    Facilitate coordination of support personnel (e.g., interpreters) to meet the diverse communication needs of the student who is deaf or hard of hearing and his or her primary caregivers.

 

(10) Standard 8: Professionalism and Ethical Practices To qualify for a deaf or hard of hearing endorsement, a candidate must have the knowledge, skills and abilities to understand teaching as a profession, maintains standards of professional conduct, and to provide leadership to improve student learning and well-being. Standard 8 (Professional and Ethical Practices) includes:

(a) Knowledge (Professionalism and Ethical Practices) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing understand:

(A) The process for acquiring the needed skills in modes/philosophies of education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing in which an individual was not prepared; and

(B)  Consumer and professional organizations, publications, and journals relevant to the field of education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

 

(b) Skills and Abilities (Professionalism and Ethical Practices) Educators of students who are deaf or hard of hearing can:

(A)  Seek interaction with adults in the deaf community to maintain/improve ASL, English signs, or cues as consistent with program philosophy;

(B)  Demonstrate the ability to interact with a variety of individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing on an adult-to-adult level;

(C)  Provide families with the knowledge and skills to make appropriate choices needed to enhance the development and transition of their children who are deaf or hard of hearing; and

(D) Participate in the activities of professional organizations relevant to the education of students who are deaf or hard of hearing.